1 November 2001
Bohun B. Kinloch, Jr., Melissa Marosy & May E. Huddleston (Ed.)
Status, Values and Roles in Ecosystems

SUGAR PINE, Status, Values and Roles in Ecosystems - Cover Proceedings of a Symposium, The California Sugar Pine Management Committee, March 30 - April 1, 1992, University of California, Davis, Division of Natural Resources, Publication 3362, USA, 225 pages, color & black-and-white photographs, tables, maps, bibliographies
ISBN 1-879906-26-0


This symposium was motivated by a concern perceived by both resource professionals and lay public alike that sugar pine as a species might be in imminent jeopardy from the introduced disease white pine blister rust. Even though the rust had been on the attack for over half a century an attitude of complacency prevailed. It was thought that the epidemic had stabilized and in many areas of the species' range the problem would not be serious. In the mid- and late 1980s, however, heavy infection suddenly began to appear where it had never been seen before in parts of the central Sierra Nevada on sugar pine, and also at high elevations on western white and even whitebark pines. The effects were especially lethal on regeneration, both natural and artificial.

What was happening? Did this mean that sugar pine was in greater danger than had been imagined all along? Were management tools and concepts adequate to meet the challenge? There was concern that no one knew the magnitude of the crisis, or what to do about it.

SUGAR PINE, Status, Values and Roles in Ecosystems - Back-Cover The California Sugar Pine Management Committee, a diverse ad hoc group composed of land managers, researchers, academics, conservationists, and others, met in 1989 to discuss the situation. It was soon recognized that blister rust was not the only problem facing sugar pine, and that much of what was known about the biology of the species was in scattered reports, filed data, and individuals' memories. There was an evident need to gather under one cover the most current and scientifically valid information available on the status, value, and roles of sugar pine in ecosystems, to serve as a guide for setting policy, management strategy, and research direction. The Symposium and these Proceedings were logical consequences of this reasoning.

Anyone who probes these pages more than casually will soon recognize how limited the current knowledge base is. Nonetheless, we hope that the information provided here will expose critical gaps in knowledge as well as provide a baseline upon which to build, and thus serve as an invaluable resource for those interested in the study, management, and conservation of sugar pine.

Bohun B. Kinloch, Jr., Program Chair
Melissa Marosy, Symposium Chair


Sustaining Sponsors
USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest and Northwest Regions
USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station
USDI Bureau of Land Management, Oregon State Office
Pacific Gas and Electric Co.
USDI Bureau of Indian Affairs, Forestry Branch
California Native Plant Society
Fruit Growers Supply Go.
Roseburg Resources
Jones and Stokes Associates, Inc.
California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection
Northern California Society of American Foresters

Association of Consulting Foresters
California Polytechnic University San Luis Obispo,
Natural Resources Management Department
California Licensed Foresters Association
California Tree Improvement Association
Stanford University Center for Conservation Biology
Hoopa Valley Business Council
National Audubon Society
The Nature Conservancy
Oregon Department of Forestry
The Sierra Club
California Lands Commission
University of California Berkeley, Cooperative Extension Service
USDI National Park Service, Western Regional Office
The Wilderness Society


iii Preface, Acknowledgments
1Is a Little Knowledge a Good Thing?
John A. Helms

Part 1 - VALUES
10Sugar Pine in the History of the West Coast
Robert W. Cermak
22Inventory Trends and Values of Sugar Pine
Gerald A. Ahlstrom

Part 2 - ECOLOGY
28Silvics of Sugar Pine: Clues to Distribution and Management
William W. Oliver
34Endemic Insect Pests and Diseases of Sugar Pine
George T. Ferrell and Robert F. Scharpf
38Role of Sugar Pine in the Mixed Evergreen Forests of the Klamath Region of Northwest California
Dale Thornburgh
38Ecology of Sugar Pine in Late Successional Mixed-Conifer Forests in the Northern Sierra Nevada and Southern Cascades
Jo Ann Fites
39Dynamics of Sugar Pine and Associated Species Following Non-Stand-Replacing Fires in White Fir-Dominated Mixed-Conifer Forests
Neil G. Sugihara and Joe R. McBride
45Uses of Sugar Pine by Cavity-Nesting Birds
Thomas M. Jimerson

54Genotype-Environment Interaction in Common Garden Tests of Sugar Pine
James L. Jenkinson
83Genetic Variation in the Growth of Sugar Pine Progenies in California Plantations
Jay H. Kitzmiller and Paul Stover
99Patterns of Variation in Isozymes of Sugar Pine
M. Thompson Conkle
100Xylem Monoterpenes of Pinus lambertiana
Richard H. Smith and Lula E. Greene

112Spread and Intensification of Blister Rust in the Range of Sugar Pine
Richard S. Smith, Jr.
119Climatic Factors that Influence the Spread of White Pine Blister Rust
Francis M. Fujioka
125Mechanisms and Inheritance of Resistance to Blister Rust in Sugar Pine
Bohun B. Kinloch, Jr., and Dean Davis
133Variation in Virulence in Gronartium ribicola: What Is the Threat?
Bolitin B. Kinloch, Jr., Dean Davis, and Gayle E. Dupper
137Ecotypes of Blister Rust arid Management of Sugar Pine in California
Geral I. McDonald
148Sugar Pine as a Model for the Molecular and Biochemical Mechanism of White Pine Blister Rust Resistance
Abul K.M. Ekramoddoullah and Bolvin B. Kinloch, Jr.

152Improving Nursery Management of Sugar Pine in the Sierra Nevada
James L. Jenkinson and Arthur H. McCain
162The Sugar Pine Program for Development of Resistance to Blister Rust in the Pacific Southwest Region
Safiya Samman and Jay H. Kitzmiller
171Developing Resistance to White Pine Blister Rust in Sugar Pine in Oregon
Richard A. Sniezko
179Silvicultural Methods of Limiting Blister Rust in Sugar Pine
Gregg A. DeNitto
185Utilizing Naturally Occurring Blister Rust Resistance in Sugar Pine at Mountain Home Demonstration State Forest
David Dulitz, David Adams, Jeanne Martin, and Lloyd Stahl
190Conservation of Biodiversity in Sugar Pine: Effects of the Blister Rust Epidernic on Genetic Diversity
Constance I. Millar, Bohun B. Kinloch, Jr., and Robert D. Wesfall
200Conservationists' Perspective on Sugar Pine Management
James Jokerst and Mary Meyer
201The Land Manager's Viewpoint: A Panel Report
Paul A. Violett, Barry K. Ford, David F. Thomas, Nancy A. Gard, Harvey J. Koester, and Jan W. van Wagtendonk

216Reflections on the Symposium William J. Libby

1 November 2001